Sugar an important food also commonly known as sucrose is white crystalline substance, tastes sweet, a carbohydrate and 100% soluble in water. Sugar (Sucrose) is a natural combination of fructose and glucose. It is very stable product.
CHEMICAL FORMULA FOR SUGAR: 12CO2 + 11H2O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2
TYPES OF SUGAR: Raw Refined Crystal Muscavado Demerara Caster Icing Premium Liquid Sugar Fine Liquid Sugar Invert White Crystal Refined - Fine Granulated
RAW MATERIALS FOR SUGAR: Sugar Cane -- a large tropical grass Beet Root Other items used are Corn (only used for sweeteners)
HOW IS SUGAR MADE?
Raw Sugar is made in large refineries by crushing cane sugar (Sachrum officenarum) or beet root (Beta vulgaris) to obtain juice and boiling this juice to remove water and processing the juice so obtained to make unrefined raw sugar. This is sometimes also known as panela. Generally cane sugar is produced by tropical countries and the beet sugar by the cold/European areas.
WORLD'S SUGAR PRODUCTION: The world at the moment is annually producing about 133 million tonnes. There are 110 countries involved in its production. It is estimated that 25 million tonnes is dumped on the world market below the market price.
PACKING FOR SUGAR: Sugar can be packed in minute sachets of 10 grams to 50kg or even larger packing sizes. Popular packed sizes are 500gms, 1kg, 2kg, 12.5kg, 25 kg and 50 kg.
SUGAR STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS:
1) REFINED SUGAR GRADE A - ICUMSA 45 Origin : Thailand Icumsa : 45 RBU Polarization : 99.80% Min Ash content : 0.04% Max Moisture : 0.04% Max Solubility : 100% Free Flowing Radiation : Normal Certified Colour : Sparkling White Granulation : Fine
2) CANE SUGAR - ICUMSA 100 Icumsa : 100 RBU Polarization : 99.50% min Ash content : 0.15% Max Moisture : 0.10% Max Solubility : 100% Free Flowing Radiation : Normal Certified Colour : White Granulation : Fine
3) RAW BROWN CANE SUGAR GRADE E ICUMSA 600-1200 Origin : Thailand Icumsa : 600 – 1200 Polarization : 96.00% Min Ash content : 0.09% Max Moisture : 0.09% Max Colour : Brown Solubility : 90% Free Flowing Granulation : Fine SO2 : 20 PPM
4) BEET SUGAR Icumsa : 45 - 100 RBU Polarization : 99.80% Min Ash content : 0.04% Max Moisture : 0.04% Max Solubility : 100% Dry & Free Flowing Radiation : Normal without presence of caesium or iodine Colour : Sparkling White Crystal Granulation : Fine to Medium Reducing Sugar : 0.05% Max by weight
International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis
MEANING AND WORKING ICUMSA is a world-wide body which brings together the activities of the National Committees for Sugar Analysis in more than thirty member countries. Work is carried out under various Subject headings, each headed by a Referee.
Methods are recommended for tentative approval by ICUMSA in the first instance. Upon meeting all of the Commission's requirements, methods are accorded official status. Methods which are demonstrably useful and have found an established application, or which do not lend themselves to collaborative testing are given an Accepted status"
An ICUMSA rating is an international unit for expressing the purity of the sugar in solution, and is directly related to the colour of the sugar. Be aware that there are different types of ICUMSA units. For Brazilian sugar, the lower the ICUMSA figure the whiter the sugar. However, this is not the case in the E.U. for some unknown reason, which has been the subject of much discussion.
SGS of Sao Paulo has published specifications for ICUMSA numbers for E.U. product which run contrary to the Brazilian specifications; for example, in Brazil SGS has an ICUMSA rating of 45 rbu for refined, indicating the highest quality, with other grades of lower quality (such as Special Extra Crystal) having a higher ICUMSA of 150 and so forth. This rating method is confirmed by the Institute of Sugar and Alcohol in Brazil.
The TU is heavily dependent upon "ash points", which are defined as "Conductivity ash, % , expressed to three decimal places" (British Sugar Corp., Central Laboratory, ICUMSA Headquarters). Further used to weight the TU is "reflectance Grade Colour" and "Solution Colour" or "Filtered Colour" as it is referred to, which have formulas for determination equally confusing as the one for "Ash Points". Thus, as you see, this is not easily understood by the novice.
ICUMSA : 45 RBU ICUMSA Attenuation index units Method # 10-1978 ASH CONTENT : 0.04% Maximum by Weight MOISTURE : 0.04% Maximum by Weight MAGNETIC PARTICLES : mg/kg 4 SOLUBILITY : 100% DRY & Free Flowing GRANULATION : Fine Standard POLARIZATION : 99.80º Minimum Max AS : 1 P.P.M. Max OS : 2 P.P.M. Max CU : 3 P.P.M. COLOUR : Sparkling White SEDIMENTS : NONE SO : mg/kg 20 REDUCING SUGAR : 0.010% Maximum in Dry Mass RADIATION : Normal w/o presence of cesium or iodine SO2: Certified SUBSTANCE : Solid, Crystal SMELL : Free of any Smell HPN STAPH AUREUS : Per 1 gram – NIL MICROBIOLOGICAL LIMITS : Pathogenic Bacteria including Salmonella per 1 gram – NIL Bacillus per 1 gram – NIL PESTICIDE TRACES : Maximum mg/kg Basis DDT 0.005 – PHOTOXIN 0.01 – HEXACHLORAN – GAMMA ISOMER 0.005 CROP: : Current Year
PHYTOSANITARY CERTIFICATE of no radiation, no virus, no insect parts, no rodent excrement, no husks and no poisonous matter. Product is suitable for HUMAN CONSUMPTION